The abstract itself (before one even reads the journal)serves as an interesting “checklist” (easily understood) for evaluating how my students are moving through the different stages of cognitive processing.
Cognition, metacognition, and epistemic cognition: A three-level model of cognitive processing.
Kitchener, Karen S. Human Development, Vol 26(4), Jul-Aug 1983, 222-232. doi: 10.1159/000272885 <
Proposes a 3-level model of cognitive processing to account for complex monitoring when individuals are faced with ill-structured problems (i.e., problems on which opposing or contradictory evidence and opinion exists). At the 1st level—cognition—individuals compute, memorize, read, perceive, and solve problems. At the 2nd level—metacognition—individuals monitor their own progress when they are engaged in these 1st-order tasks. At the 3rd level—epistemic cognition—individuals reflect on the limits of knowing, the certainty of knowing, and criteria of knowing. Epistemic assumptions influence how individuals understand the nature of problems and decide what types of strategies are appropriate for solving them. While cognitive and metacognitive processes appear to develop in childhood and are used throughout the life span, research on adult reasoning suggests that epistemic cognitive monitoring develops in the late adolescent and adult years. (37 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)